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Historians have disputed the precise year the city was founded. Planning and Urban Growth in Southern Europe. Placenames of the World: Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 15 October Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Istanbul is home to some of Turkey's oldest sports clubs. Can create and read in a Siemens text file format. Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games. Telephony signals Mobile phone culture Telecommunications-related introductions in Metropolitan municipalities are casino en ligne les plus serieux.

The city's electorate has also voted for the AKP government's constitutional reforms proposed during the and constitutional referenda. The CHP are generally strongest in the west, where newer residential developments are taking place.

For general elections, the city is divided into 3 electoral districts and returns 85 MPs to the Turkish parliament.

In the presidential election , With its high population and significant contribution to the Turkish economy, Istanbul is responsible for two-fifths of the nation's tax revenue.

As expected for a city of its size, Istanbul has a diverse industrial economy, producing commodities as varied as olive oil, tobacco, vehicles, and electronics.

As the only sea route between the oil-rich Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosphorus is one of the busiest waterways in the world; more than million tonnes of oil pass through the strait each year, and the traffic on the Bosphorus is three times that on the Suez Canal.

Istanbul is an increasingly popular tourist destination; whereas just 2. Istanbul's tourist industry is concentrated in the European side, with 90 percent of the city's hotels located there.

Low- and mid-range hotels tend to be located on the Sarayburnu ; higher-end hotels are primarily located in the entertainment and financial centers north of the Golden Horn.

The city's environmental master plan also notes that there are 17 palaces , 64 mosques , and 49 churches of historical significance in Istanbul.

Istanbul was historically known as a cultural hub, but its cultural scene stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.

By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had established itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Middle Eastern artists flocking to the city.

Despite efforts to make Ankara Turkey's cultural heart, Istanbul had the country's primary institution of art until the s.

Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in With its focus now solely on music and dance, the Istanbul Festival has been known as the Istanbul International Music Festival since Istanbul has numerous shopping centers , from the historic to the modern.

The Grand Bazaar , in operation since , is among the world's oldest and largest covered markets.

Galleria Ataköy ushered in the age of modern shopping malls in Turkey when it opened in Akmerkez was awarded the titles of "Europe's best" and "World's best" shopping mall by the International Council of Shopping Centers in and ; Istanbul Cevahir has been one of the continent's largest since opening in ; Kanyon won the Cityscape Architectural Review Award in the Commercial Built category in Istanbul is famous for its historic seafood restaurants.

Because of their restaurants, historic summer mansions, and tranquil, car-free streets, the Prince Islands are a popular vacation destination among Istanbulites and foreign tourists.

However, following the influx of immigrants from southeastern and eastern Turkey, which began in the s, the foodscape of the city has drastically changed by the end of the century; with influences of Middle Eastern cuisine such as kebab taking an important place in the food scene.

Istanbul is famous for its nightlife , as well as its historic taverns , a signature characteristic of the city for centuries if not millennia.

Istanbul is home to some of Turkey's oldest sports clubs. Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games.

Atatürk Olympic Stadium , the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, was completed in as an IAAF first-class venue for track and field. Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship , with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12—13 August Most state-run radio and television stations are based in Ankara, but Istanbul is the primary hub of Turkish media.

The industry has its roots in the former Ottoman capital, where the first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi Calendar of Affairs , was published in Today, Istanbul hosts a wide variety of periodicals.

Several smaller newspapers, including popular publications like Cumhuriyet , Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul. Radio broadcasts in Istanbul date back to , when Turkey's first radio transmission came from atop the Central Post Office in Eminönü.

Control of this transmission, and other radio stations established in the following decades, ultimately came under the state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation TRT , which held a monopoly on radio and television broadcasts between its founding in and Offering a range of content from educational programming to coverage of sporting events, Radio 2 is the most popular radio station in Turkey.

Among Turkey's first private stations, and the first featuring foreign popular music, was Istanbul's Metro FM The state-run Radio 3 , although based in Ankara, also features English-language popular music, and English-language news programming is provided on NTV Radyo Istanbul University , founded in , is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city.

Although originally an Islamic school , the university established law, medicine, and science departments in the 19th century and was secularized after the founding of the Turkish Republic.

Most established universities in Istanbul are backed by the government; the city also has several prominent private institutions. The first modern private university in Istanbul, also the oldest American school in existence in its original location outside the United States, was Robert College , founded by Christopher Robert , an American philanthropist, and Cyrus Hamlin , a missionary devoted to education, in In , there were about 4, schools , about half of which were primary schools ; on average, each school had students.

In recent years, Istanbul's educational system has expanded substantially; from to , the number of classrooms and teachers nearly doubled and the number of students increased by more than 60 percent.

It was built at the behest of Sultan Bayezid II , who sought to bring students with diverse backgrounds together as a means of strengthening his growing empire.

Galatasaray, for example, offers instruction in French; other Anatolian High Schools primarily teach in English or German alongside Turkish. Istanbul's first water supply systems date back to the city's early history, when aqueducts such as the Valens Aqueduct deposited the water in the city's numerous cisterns.

By , the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established. In , Istanbul had hospitals , of which were private.

Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients using private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between and The high quality of healthcare, especially in private hospitals, has contributed to a recent upsurge in medical tourism to Turkey with a 40 percent increase between and Istanbul's primary motorways are the O-1 , O-2 , O-3 and O Istanbul's local public transportation system is a network of trams , funiculars , metro lines, buses, bus rapid transit , and ferries.

Fares across modes are integrated, using the contactless Istanbulkart , introduced in , or the older Akbil electronic ticket device.

International rail service from Istanbul launched in , with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul's Sirkeci Terminal , which ultimately became famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.

Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15, buses and , passengers , serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt.

Istanbul has two international airports. Dominated by low-cost carriers , Istanbul's second airport has rapidly become popular, especially since the opening of a new international terminal in ; [] the airport handled From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Istanbul disambiguation. Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey. Timeline of Istanbul history.

Three paintings of Ottoman era Istanbul by Ivan Aivazovsky. Geography of Turkey and Geology of Turkey. List of urban centers in Istanbul. List of districts of Istanbul and List of neighbourhoods of Istanbul.

Demographics of Turkey and Istanbul Province. List of sport facilities in Istanbul. Telecommunications in Turkey and Health care in Turkey.

Public transport in Istanbul. Istanbul's nostalgic and modern tram systems. The most authoritative source on this figure ought to be the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality MMI , but the English version of its website suggests a few figures for this area.

One page states that "Each MM is sub-divided into District Municipalities "DM" of which there are 27 in Istanbul " [emphasis added] with a total area of 1, It also states a law merged the Eminönü district into the Fatih district a point that is not reflected in the previous source and increased the number of districts in Istanbul to Historians have disputed the precise year the city was founded.

Commonly cited is the work of 5th-century-BC historian Herodotus , which says the city was founded seventeen years after Chalcedon , [43] which came into existence around BCE.

The ranges of values between and are due to Morris , which also does a comprehensive analysis of sources, including Chandler ; Morris notes that many of Chandler's estimates during that time seem too large for the city's size, and presents smaller estimates.

Chandler disagrees with Turan on the population of the city in the mids with the former suggesting , in , but Turan, p.

Turan's figures, as well as the figure, [] come from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The drastic increase in population between and is largely due to an enlargement of the city's limits see the Administration section.

Explanations for population changes in pre-Republic times can be inferred from the History section. The agglomeration "usually incorporates the population in a city or town plus that in the suburban areas lying outside of, but being adjacent to, the city boundaries".

Largest cities in the world by land area, population and density". Retrieved 26 June Evrick 28 May Walking in the European City.

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The Armenian genocide 1st ed. Marc Baer, University of California, Irvine. Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 13 June Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

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Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 29 April Tradition, Innovation, And Eclecticism , Retrieved 12 June Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish.

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Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 9 May Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

International Religious Freedom Report ". The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Archived from the original on 8 June Archived from the original on 31 May Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 21 June Facing a New Millenniium: At least when it comes to amateur Next weekend is showtime: Edition of Rad am Ring cycling festival is taking place - and the offer is more extensive than ever before.

In addition to the heart of the event, the hour races on tarmac and off-road, the Subscribe to your own personal Nürburgring newsletter now!

Hier die aktuellen Öffnungszeiten für Touristenfahrten. News Newsletter Media Contact Home. In POTS switching systems, ringing is said to be "tripped" when the impedance of the line reduces to about ohms when the telephone handset is lifted off the switch-hook.

This signals that the telephone call has been answered, and the telephone exchange immediately removes the ringing signal from the line and connects the call.

This is the source of the name of the problem called "ring-trip" or "pre-trip", which occurs when the ringing signal on the line encounters excessively low resistance between the conductors, which trips the ring before the subscriber's actual telephone has a chance to ring for more than a very short time ; this is common with wet connections and improperly installed lines.

The ringing pattern is known as ring cadence. This only applies to POTS fixed phones, where the high voltage ring signal is switched on and off to create the ringing pattern.

In North America, the standard ring cadence is "", or two seconds of ringing followed by four seconds of silence. In Australia and the UK, the standard ring cadence is ms on, ms off, ms on, ms off.

These patterns may vary from region to region, and other patterns are used in different countries around the world. Some central offices offer distinctive ring to identify which of multiple numbers on the same line is being called, a pattern once widely used on party line telephony.

In many systems, including North America Bellcore standards, Caller ID signals are sent during the silent interval between the first and second bursts of the ringing signals.

The caller is informed about the progress of the call by the audible ringing signal, often called ringback tone. Power ringing and audible ringing are not synchronized.

These gongs provided "distinctive tones" for hearing-impaired customers and also made it possible to distinguish the specific telephone that was ringing when several telephones were placed in close proximity.

While rings, ringers, ring signals, or what might be viewed as the call signals which are the predecessors of ringtones, date back to the beginnings of telephony, modern ringtones appeared in the s and have expanded into tunes and many customizable tones or melodies.

Following a FCC ruling which permitted third-party devices to be connected to phone lines, manufacturers produced accessory telephone ringers which rang with electronic tones or melodies rather than mechanical bells.

People also made their own ringers which used the chip from a musical greeting card to play a melody on the arrival of a call.

Some of these ringers produced a single tone, but others produced a sequence of two or three tones or a musical melody. It was the first mobile phone where a user could input an original melody, rather than the preset songs.

These phones proved to be popular in Japan: The first downloadable mobile ring tone service was created and delivered in Finland in when Radiolinja a Finnish mobile operator now known as Elisa started their service called Harmonium, invented by Vesa-Matti Pananen.

A ring tone maker is an application that converts a user chosen song or other audio file for use as a ringtone of a mobile phone. The ringtone file is installed in the mobile phone either by direct cable connection, Bluetooth, text messaging, or e-mail.

Many websites also let users create ring tones from digital music or audio. The earliest ringtone maker was Harmonium, developed by Vesa-Matti Paananen, a Finnish computer programmer, and released in for use with Nokia smart messaging.

In , Clarke registered ringtone. These often use encoding formats only available to one particular phone model or brand. Other formats, such as MIDI or MP3, are often supported; they must be downloaded to the phone before they can be used as a normal ring tone.

When someone buys a ringtone, an aggregator a company that sells ringtones either creates the tune or mixes a pre-existing tune. The ringtone is sent in a special file format to the phone via SMS.

If the company uses a pre-existing song, they must pay royalties to a licensing agency. A significant portion goes to the cell phone provider.

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In POTS switching systems, ringing is said to be "tripped" when the impedance of the line reduces to about ohms when the telephone handset is lifted off the switch-hook.

This signals that the telephone call has been answered, and the telephone exchange immediately removes the ringing signal from the line and connects the call.

This is the source of the name of the problem called "ring-trip" or "pre-trip", which occurs when the ringing signal on the line encounters excessively low resistance between the conductors, which trips the ring before the subscriber's actual telephone has a chance to ring for more than a very short time ; this is common with wet connections and improperly installed lines.

The ringing pattern is known as ring cadence. This only applies to POTS fixed phones, where the high voltage ring signal is switched on and off to create the ringing pattern.

In North America, the standard ring cadence is "", or two seconds of ringing followed by four seconds of silence. In Australia and the UK, the standard ring cadence is ms on, ms off, ms on, ms off.

These patterns may vary from region to region, and other patterns are used in different countries around the world.

Some central offices offer distinctive ring to identify which of multiple numbers on the same line is being called, a pattern once widely used on party line telephony.

In many systems, including North America Bellcore standards, Caller ID signals are sent during the silent interval between the first and second bursts of the ringing signals.

The caller is informed about the progress of the call by the audible ringing signal, often called ringback tone. Power ringing and audible ringing are not synchronized.

These gongs provided "distinctive tones" for hearing-impaired customers and also made it possible to distinguish the specific telephone that was ringing when several telephones were placed in close proximity.

While rings, ringers, ring signals, or what might be viewed as the call signals which are the predecessors of ringtones, date back to the beginnings of telephony, modern ringtones appeared in the s and have expanded into tunes and many customizable tones or melodies.

Following a FCC ruling which permitted third-party devices to be connected to phone lines, manufacturers produced accessory telephone ringers which rang with electronic tones or melodies rather than mechanical bells.

People also made their own ringers which used the chip from a musical greeting card to play a melody on the arrival of a call. Some of these ringers produced a single tone, but others produced a sequence of two or three tones or a musical melody.

It was the first mobile phone where a user could input an original melody, rather than the preset songs. These phones proved to be popular in Japan: The first downloadable mobile ring tone service was created and delivered in Finland in when Radiolinja a Finnish mobile operator now known as Elisa started their service called Harmonium, invented by Vesa-Matti Pananen.

A ring tone maker is an application that converts a user chosen song or other audio file for use as a ringtone of a mobile phone.

The ringtone file is installed in the mobile phone either by direct cable connection, Bluetooth, text messaging, or e-mail. Many websites also let users create ring tones from digital music or audio.

The earliest ringtone maker was Harmonium, developed by Vesa-Matti Paananen, a Finnish computer programmer, and released in for use with Nokia smart messaging.

In , Clarke registered ringtone. These often use encoding formats only available to one particular phone model or brand. Other formats, such as MIDI or MP3, are often supported; they must be downloaded to the phone before they can be used as a normal ring tone.

When someone buys a ringtone, an aggregator a company that sells ringtones either creates the tune or mixes a pre-existing tune.

The ringtone is sent in a special file format to the phone via SMS. A Case Study from Turkey". Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 20 December Gentrification In A Global Context: The New Urban Colonialism.

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